Hayley Kirley interviews Stephanie Knipper about her beautiful book, Peculiar Miracles of Antoinette Martin. Knipper discusses her writing inspiration, her experience at NKU, and her advice for other authors.
HK: You have published the book, Peculiar Miracles of Antoinette Martin. The story is about a young woman with special abilities. You have mentioned in past interviews that it is in part inspired by your own experiences. Can you explain more about the inspiration for your book?
SK: This was a very personal book for me. It came together after two difficult events in my life. The first was the birth of my son, Zachary. I went into preterm labor when I was six and a half months pregnant. When Zach was delivered, he weighed two pounds fourteen ounces. He fit in the palm of my hand. Miraculously, he only spent four weeks in the neonatal ICU and experienced no ill effects from his traumatic birth. I was not so lucky. When doctors performed the emergency C-section, they discovered that I had developed peritonitis. I was put on life support and spent several days in ICU. No one expected me to survive. I ended up spending almost two months in the hospital and was later diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. After my health stabilized, and Zach and I had been home for several months, I started to wonder what life would be like for a child whose mother had died at birth. Would they feel responsible? What would that child do to try to keep their mother alive? In 2005 we adopted our first child from China, Grace. We had been told that she had a heart condition that had already been surgically corrected. When we met Grace, it was obvious that her problems went far beyond a small heart condition. She was almost two and couldn’t hold her head up, couldn’t walk, and couldn’t eat solid foods. Still, we hoped that once she was home she would get better. Unfortunately, she didn’t. Grace was diagnosed with autism, developmental delays, and seizures. After the shock of Grace’s diagnosis wore off, I once again thought about a child whose mother died during childbirth. How much worse would it be for a disabled child to lose their mother? With that thought, the character of Antoinette was born, and the rest of the book fell into place.
HK: Can you explain for me the process in which you got published?
SK: I had been researching agents while working on my manuscript. Once it was finished, I began submitting the book to agents. Dan Lazar from Writer’s House was one of my dream agents. I never thought that he’d be interested in representing me, but within a few weeks of submitting my manuscript I had signed a contract with him! After that, we went through several rounds of revision. It was a long and grueling process but the book is so much better for it. Finally, Dan submitted the book to publishers and Algonquin made an offer!
HK: How did the Master’s program at NKU help you in your process?
SK: My time at NKU gave me permission to admit that I was a writer. Too often, those of us who write fiction feel as if it’s a silly little hobby. There’s a lot of pressure in our culture to be “productive”—which usually translates to “something that makes a lot of money”. From the start, the English Department faculty treated me as someone whose work had value. Not only that, but the professors went out of their way to help students develop their own voice. There was no pressure to write only “literary” fiction. Writers in all genres were encouraged and supported. I believe this culture is unique to NKU and should be celebrated. The safe and supportive atmosphere gave me the courage to push the boundaries of my writing.
HK: What advice would you give writers trying to get published?
SK: First, don’t quit. Writing a novel is grueling. There will be days you want to run your manuscript through a shredder and delete it from your hard drive. Don’t. Push through. By simply finishing your manuscript, you’re already ahead of most people. Second, edit your work. Not just once or twice, but fifteen or twenty times. Don’t be one of those people who believe every word they write is precious. If you want to be a writer, plan on spending 90 percent of your time editing. Finally, after you’ve edited your work, you have to send it out. Don’t be afraid. The absolute worst thing that can happen is that you’ll get a form email turning down your work. Don’t worry about it. When you get that rejection, turn around and send that book back out.
HK: What is your next project?
SK: I’m working on my second novel. It too is set in Kentucky—this time in Appalachia—and centers on a fractured relationship between a mother and her grown daughter. That relationship becomes even more strained when the mother’s mental health deteriorates after past traumas resurface and the daughter must move home to care for her.
Jacqui interviews NKU BA and MAE graduate, Minadora Macheret, about her life after NKU, which includes an MA at Kansas State and acceptances to several PhD in English/Creative Writing programs: University of South Dakota, Georgia State, and the University of North Texas (with full funding).
JT: Tell us about some of your favorite memories at NKU as an undergraduate and graduate student.
MM: Some of my favorite memories as an undergraduate student while at NKU had to be the OpenMic that we have in the middle of the plaza during the Celebration of Research week. Also, I loved the trip I got to take to Ecuador to do service-learning and to engage the country and its history. As a graduate student, I was fortunate to be chosen to run Licking River Review and learned a lot from sending out a call for submissions to finalizing the proofs on the final product. Most of all, my favorite memories included the faculty and students that were part of my community and who continue to support me today (even states away).
JT: You also have another Master’s degree from Kansas State. What degree is that in, and what made you decide to get another Master’s degree?
MM: Funnily enough, my Master’s degree from Kansas State is also in English, but with a focus in literature and creative writing, along with a certificate in Professional and Technical Communication. Well, I ended up at K-State after dealing with almost 12 rejections to MFA programs from the 2014-2015 application season. I had heard from a friend that they were still looking for applicants (especially poets) and considering their amazing poet on faculty, Traci Brimhall, I realized that I wanted to work with her and see how my poetry could grow. Also, K-State gave me the opportunity to teach persuasive writing as a Graduate Teaching Assistant, which would help to cover my tuition and some of my living costs.
JT: Many students from NKU will want to further their education, and many will be looking into graduate assistantships, teaching assistantships, and other scholarships to receive funding for graduate school, myself included. Since you just received funding to the University of South Dakota, what advice would you give those students?
MM: I would advise researching the schools that you are applying to and making sure that they state on their departmental websites that they cover tuition through teaching assistantships or research assistantships, or through other work programs through the university, like working in writing centers. If the website doesn’t tell you then call the department and speak to their director to find out how funding is distributed (if it is offered). Not all programs will offer funding or some will just offer partial funding. Also, make sure to highlight any sort of teaching you have done, whether as a teaching assistant, a grader, as a tutor, through any volunteering programs, etc. within your statement of purpose to show the program that you’re serious in pursuing your skills in aiding others to learn. I think most importantly that you find ways to follow your passions even if it may not be considered the “normal route.” For instance, at K-State I was unable to teach any creative writing courses and so I found ways to teach creative writing within the community. I teach poetry and storytelling to the local 4-H Latina club in Manhattan, KS, which have become very popular and opened other avenues where I get to engage creative writing. I think the best advice I ever got (coincidentally from a professor at NKU) was to take any passion I have and find a way to build community and engagement through it even when it seems like every door has closed. That bit of advice has been pivotal for my success as a poet and professional.
JT: What schools did you pick to apply to and why? What would you tell students to look for in a school when they start applying for graduate school?
MM: I applied to University of North Texas, Georgia State University, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Florida State University. I chose those other four schools because I heavily researched the faculty there and found people that I thought could become mentors or that at the very least we would be a good fit based on aesthetic, research interests, genre of writing, etc. Also, making sure each program was fully funded was a concern of mine along with looking at how their current students/recent graduates were doing as far as publications, rates of job offers, etc. As far as what you want to look for when you start applying for graduate school is to make sure that the city/town/location, its environment, and climate are things you can live with for the next two to five years depending on the length of your program. Look at the applications fees, if they require official GRE scores to be sent, and whether they require official transcript copies to be sent, all of which can add up very quickly and expensively. Make sure that there are faculty within the program that are interested in similar research ideas so you can establish a mentorship and work with someone already established within the field. Also, if funding is a concern of yours, make sure to find out that the program is fully funded and understand that funding can sometimes fall through due to the nature of budget cuts and bureaucracy. Lastly, I would see if the program offers classes that you would like to take by looking at their course catalogs and even reaching out to current students to hear about their experiences within that program.
JT: What do you plan to accomplish and focus on while furthering your education at either the University of South Dakota or the other programs you applied to?
MM: I will be focusing on completing a Ph.D. in Creative Writing with a focus in poetry. My hope is to complete a second collection of poems and work on sending out the current manuscript to be picked up. Along with that, I want to continue my work as the Poetry Editor for Devilfish Review, will hopefully join the staff of the university’s literary magazine, and continue my work with 4-H youth.
JT: Besides furthering your education, has there been anything else you’ve been up to?
MM: Besides furthering my education, I have spent a lot of time traveling cross- country with my pup, Aki, attending writing residencies, and being a part of different reading series. Also, I got to spend the last two years helping to do curriculum develop and create culturally-sensitive programming for KSRE-4H Youth Development, which has resulted in a webinar series where I get to be a facilitator as well as guest speaker. My time in Kansas has been a whirlwind full of adventure, reflection, and growth. I am thankful for the landscape I’ve gotten to experience and become a part of.
NKU English graduates, Christen Leppla (MA, 2011) and Ryan Kauffman (MA, 2011), discuss their graduate studies at Northern Michigan University, including their summer grants and recent publications.
What are you doing now? Tell us about your MFA program, especially.
CL: I was lucky enough to get a fellowship in poetry to Northern Michigan University’s MFA program. It’s a teaching fellowship, so I teach one course a semester that will range from Composition to Creative Writing. In the fall, I will also be an associate fiction editor for Passages North. Since I’ve begun the MFA program, I’ve become the first person at NMU to duel track, so I’m now getting a MFA in poetry and fiction. It’s a lot of work, but I’m having a blast. The program is 3 years, so as of right now my thesis will entail a novel and a book length poetry collection. Needless to say, with that amount of work I’m glad the program is 3 years instead of 2!
RK: I’m a creative nonfiction candidate in the MFA program at Northern Michigan University. At first, I was considering dual tracking in nonfiction and fiction, but I’ve decided to concentrate solely on nonfiction for my coursework. The fiction faculty members, despite not having me as a student in their classes, have all been very helpful and encouraging of any works of fiction I’m working on outside of my nonfiction classes. Like Christen, I’ve been awarded funding for the program – mine in the form of a teaching assistantship – in which I teach one course a semester. So far, I’ve taught EN 111 Composition 1 and EN 211B Narrative and Descriptive Writing, and I’ll be teaching EN 211D Technical Writing in the fall. Also in the fall, I will be an associate nonfiction editor for Passages North.
Tell us about your summer grants.
CL: I received the Excellence in Education Grant to work on my novel over the summer. Basically, it covers some of my living expenses so that I can focus on finishing the first draft of my novel. The novel is centered on characters within diasporic Appalachian communities on the outskirts of what is considered the traditional Appalachian region, and the grant also paid for research materials to help me with authentic representation. I hope to have the first draft finished by September 1st.
RK: I received the Excellence in Education Grant to write a series of essays (that will hopefully become the centerpiece for a book-length work) interrogating memory through the lens of whale watching and the history of whaling in New England. With the grant, I travelled to Portland, Maine for archival research at the Maine Historical Society Library and the Portland Observatory, as well as two whale-watching tours in the North Atlantic for experiential research – in which I saw several Fin Whales (the second largest animal in the world) and Humpback Whales. My goal is to have written through at least three drafts of four essays by September 1st.
What have you recently published?
CL: I recently had two poems accepted in East Coast Literary Review. They were both poems that I’d workshopped at NKU and were part of the writing samples I sent with my MFA applications. It was great to see them find a home! I’ve actually published quite a few of the poems I wrote during my time at NKU, and I’m so grateful to the people in those workshops who challenged me as a writer.
RK: I’ve recently had several acceptances: One poem was accepted in Jellyfish Whispers, another poem was accepted in Poetry Quarterly, and a nonfiction piece was accepted in Punchnel’s. I worked on all three of these pieces, in earlier forms, during my time at NKU. The poem in Jellyfish Whispers has since been anthologized in the journal’s “Best of 2013” publication. I also have several pieces hanging out there in the ether between submission and rejection/acceptance, so my fingers are crossed for some more good news in the coming months.
Any current projects?
CL: Of course, my novel is the top priority this summer. To fulfill my grant proposal, I will need to complete at least twenty thousand words by the end of August. I’m also working on the beginnings of the poetry portion of my thesis, as well as trying to write a few nonfiction pieces that have been keeping me up at night. I will be presenting at the Writing Across the Peninsula Conference in the fall, so I will be polishing that presentation towards the end of the summer, as well.
RK: Along with the “whale” essays, I’m working on several other things this summer. I’ve been toying with a few flash fiction pieces, a novelette, and some ideas for a couple poetry/essay hybrid pieces that I’d like to get down on paper and start polishing. Another major project for this summer is centered on my reading list. Right now I have quite the stack to get through!
Any advice for current students?
CL: My advice is really for creative writing students. I think the most important thing current students can do is take advantage of every opportunity, whether that be working on Licking River Review, attending the readings the department organizes, or joining a workshop outside the classroom. The people I met when I got involved have continued to challenge and support me, and every experience helped my writing. I always wish I had done more. Also, commit to, and be present for, every workshop you take. Take risks. Experiment. Accept what is working and what isn’t. If you do that, the writing that will come from those workshops will be stronger and your ability to revise your work will be greater. Lastly, enjoy every minute! We are all so fortunate to go into a classroom that is devoted to what we love. I often can’t believe how lucky I am when I remember that my homework is to read a good book and write a few poems. I know I will look back someday and think how great this experience was and how I would do it all again if I could.
RK: Christen said it pretty well. In addition to her comments, I would encourage current students to take advantage of the wonderful creative writing classes and faculty at NKU. When you edit another student’s manuscript, take it seriously. By being a good editor/critic, you help yourself establish the literary moves you want to make in your own writing. Ask questions, and pay close attention to the faculty’s answers/suggestions. They know what they’re doing!
Kevin Kehl graduated from NKU in 2012 with a BA in English and a minor in Medieval and Renaissance Studies. He’s currently completing a MA in Literature at the University of Massachusetts Boston and is planning to apply to apply to PhD programs.
What are you up to now? Can you tell us a bit about your transition into the MA English Lit program at UMASS Boston?
Currently I am finishing my last semester in my Master’s program at the University of Massachusetts Boston and writing my thesis as well. In the upcoming fall, I plan on applying for Ph.D. programs. Besides my own studies, I teach a course at the University and I am also working with a professor to coordinate a study abroad trip this summer in Siena, Italy.
Once I graduated from NKU, I moved to Boston at the end of the summer to begin my M.A. in English Literature. My transition into the program was actually very exciting. I was one of many transplants into the city with many colleagues from different parts of the country. The idea of moving into a city with no previous connections was a bit nerve-racking, but the faculty and fellow students have provided a wonderful atmosphere for learning. For me, it has been a very profitable decision in both my academic career and personal life—mostly because Boston is an amazingly vibrant city, packed full of opportunities. The city is never a dull moment! Of course, running into random NKU professors at conferences is nice as well!
What is one of your greatest memories and/or greatest lessons from your time at NKU?
Hmm…that’s a tough question. Well the greatest memories, I will say, have always come from the interaction with the English faculty in-and-out of the classroom. Particularly, I always looked forward to the energetic classes taught by the professors. Topics such as Shakespeare, Faulkner, Romanticism, and…I hate to say it…Literary Theory, always seemed to be fun even at their most grueling moments. The best parts were being able to have study groups and conversations with other people about the things we enjoyed or suffered. I know that one semester, our theory class banded together to form a study group to help us understand what the heck these guys like Foucault, Derrida, and Barthes were teaching us. On a separate occasion, a bunch of students and faculty would get together to read and discuss novels written by Charles Dickens. The overarching sense of community that I found in the English department was the most enjoyable experience I had as an English major.
What is your main research interest?
Besides trying to find a steady balance between work, sleep, and personal freedom, my main research interest focuses primarily on literature of the English Renaissance and Romantic periods. My current research project aims to look at the influences of Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene on the ‘mature’ poetic style of John Keats.
Do you have any advice for our current students?
Find what you love. Do what you love. Don’t miss out on your opportunity. I say this with a grain of salt, because, sometimes life does hit you hard. If you are serious about your goals in school and life, don’t delay them any further. Read your material, write your papers, make friends with faculty and students; become immersed within your profession. You don’t want to be sitting on a park bench one day, pondering the meaning of your life, and say: “Wow, I really wish that I did that while I had the chance.” Of course this may sound like typical motivational mumbo-jumbo, but hey, they keep preachin’ it for a reason. Overall, know what you want to do with your life and have goals set to help yourself get there, but be smart about it. Have a backup plan prepared in case you don’t make it your first or second time. Of course, enjoy it all while it is happening.
Sara Moore with her son, Cohen, and her fiancé, Jon Wagner.
Recent MA grad, Sara Moore, talks about teaching in Korea, her studies at NKU, and her work as a poet.
You spent three years teaching in Korea. What was that like? How did you find this program and secure the position?
It was a phenomenally life changing experience. I first heard about the opportunity through a friend who was already living there. She helped me find a good recruiter who placed me in an amazing school. Recruiters can often be motivated solely by self-interest, but I found Footprints Recruiting to be extremely helpful and attentive to my needs as a foreigner (it’s run by previous teachers). It’s hard for me to sum up such a long and complex experience. I will say that I feel so differently about the world now, and about people. I think it’s easy to get caught in a worldview bubble, which is fed by media, etc. To get out and live in the world was a gift to me. It was at times beautiful, terrifying, boring, enriching, and humbling. It was like living anywhere else; you get used to it and it becomes a part of who you are. For me, it gave me a deeper sense of adventure, and a real love of teaching. The kids were the best part!
Why did you choose the MA program at NKU?
I chose this program because it really met all my needs. I had been out of school for seven years, and back in the US for about three. I was teaching at the high school level and raising my young son, but I wanted to be able to further my education that I might have more employment opportunities. I wasn’t sure that an MFA would do this for me, and at this time I wasn’t writing much poetry (I have a BFA in poetry from BGSU). The program here did not pressure me to decide what I wanted to do/study right away. I was allowed to explore and choose my own path. It was also affordable and offered all evening classes, which worked well for me as a single mom.
How has writing poetry changed your life?
I feel like I’ve always been a poet…I know it sounds cheesy. When I was as young as seven or eight, I would write my diary entries as rhymed poems. I don’t know if I thought this would make it harder for my brother to figure out what I was really saying or what. Regardless, I’ve always loved poetry. It helps me make sense of the world and my connection to it. Reading poetry does the same thing for me. My first poetic love was H.D., reading her made me want to learn and explore the world, and to play with language. She also led me to mythology, which is another passion of mine.
During the seven years between my BFA and MA, I wasn’t writing poetry as much, for whatever reason. Coming back to poetry through the writing program at NKU changed my life significantly. I am much more balanced and happy, and I’ve met an amazing community of writers who push and support me. I’ve learned to connect with my own voice, and to be regimented in my writing and revising.
Tell us about your recent publications.
One of the things I’m most proud of recently is my acceptance into Vine Leaves’ Best of 2013 anthology for my poem “Imaginary Bodies.” Also, two poems from my capstone project, “His Coffin” and “Explaining Origins and Ending” will soon be featured in Arsenic Lobster. Over the past year, my poems have appeared or are scheduled to appear in The Rappahannock Review, The Red Rose Review, The San Pedro River Review, and Illuminations.
What are you up to now?
I am currently teaching as an adjunct at NKU and at a private school for homeschoolers. This schedule allows me to spend a lot of my time with my son, who is just finishing preschool. I recently got engaged, and am looking forward to starting the next chapter of my life. I also see a PhD on the horizon.
Any advice for current students and recent grads?
My main advice is to make connections with both faculty and students, especially if you are a writer. This world has so many distractions. It’s easy to get off-task, or to forget things we promise ourselves we’ll do. Meet people who will help you be that person you want to be, and help them too. Offer the best of yourself in every class, and in the feedback you give your peers. Be present and engaged and take every opportunity you can.
Rich Shivener (BA 2006, MA 2010), Assistant Director of First Year Programs at NKU, discusses his position, his recent publications/conference papers, and his advice for recent grads.
How did you become the Assistant Director of First Year Programs at NKU and how did your English studies prepare you for this role?
In Fall 2010, I had a good connection with First Year Programs when I was teaching University 101 and finishing my last semester in the MA program. FYP was seeking an assistant director who could coordinate FYP’s communications and the Book Connection, its common reading program for freshmen; a bonus was that the 2011-2012 Book Connection would feature a graphic novel by NKU alum David Mack. I felt prepared for the position, since I studied writing technologies, creative nonfiction and graphic novels. What’s more, my final project in the MA program was a graphic novel script on Cincinnati music. I was advised by Profs. Andrew Miller, Allen Ellis and John Alberti, the latter of whom serves on the Book Connection committee. It’s a joy to stay connected with the department!
Tell us about your publications.
Simply put, I love writing in a variety of contexts, and I’m thankful for the opportunities. I’ll name some recent ones. Writer’s Digest published my interviews with A Game of Thrones author George R.R. Martin and The Walking Dead writer Robert Kirkman. Cincinnati CityBeat published two chapters from my graphic novel script. I have credits with Paste, Sports Illustrated online and Publishers Weekly, for which I write features on digital publishing and comics. Beyond freelancing for magazines and online, I have presented scholarship at New York Comic-Con, the Conference on the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition and Comic-Con International: San Diego.
What did you present at Comic-Con International?
I was part of the panel “Crossover Series: Comics to College Writing” at the Comics Arts Conference at Comic-Con International. Fellow MA alum John Silvestro and I were sharing a lot of ideas since graduation, and we decided to propose a panel that discussed ways we use comics in ENG 101/College Writing. I thank Dr. Jen Cellio for offering me classes.
Any current projects?
I just finished a chapter on crime graphic novels, set to be published later this year in the book volume Critical Insights: The Graphic Novel (Salem Press). In December, Cincinnati magazine will publish my six-page comic on King Records in Cincinnati, where James Brown got his start. I wrote the script and recent grad Brian Wolf illustrated it.
Other than those, I have a few presentations and freelance pitches in the can. At FYP, I’m working with some colleagues on an assessment project regarding the Book Connection program. We want to know how the program impacts students’ opinions on such topics as child labor and globalization, two from this year’s book, Where Am I Wearing? by Kelsey Timmerman.
Any advice for current students or recent grads?
Stay persistent and form relationships as you pitch your ideas – whether you are connecting those with a professor or a potential employer. A little anecdote: When I was seeking an internship my senior year, I stalked (his words) a magazine’s editor-in-chief. I found out where he was holding special events and made sure to introduce myself each time. I had nary a writing clip to my name, but I sent over some recent creative writings and my first three clips with the student newspaper, The Northerner. The magazine decided to hire me because they knew I was eager to learn more about magazine writing and wasn’t afraid to fail many times in the process of sharpening my skills. I’ve been persistent in every pitch and application since.
Mary Anne Reese is an attorney based in Cincinnati. She graduated from the MA program May 2012 and she is the author of the poetry collections Raised by Water (Finishing Line Press, 2011) and the forthcoming Down Deep (Finishing Line Press).
Since you were/are a lawyer, why did you decide to pursue an MA in English? And why did you choose our program?
Most of my legal practice involves analytical writing. I knew from my undergrad experience that studying English would sharpen those analytical writing skills, and it has.
My real hunger, however, was to turn my creative side loose in a supportive environment and see what might happen. I searched online and found NKU’s new graduate program. From the first course, I knew I was in the right place. The learning community, the mentoring and feedback I received, and the extensive reading I did all helped me to develop as a writer.
Also, while many fields of study provide useful skills, I think the humanities are a lifeline. Our professors, students and the coursework taught me a great deal about living fully, with steadfastness, compassion and resilience.
What have you been up to since graduation?
I’m still working as an attorney–I do a lot of writing in the area of criminal constitutional law. In my spare time, I love to swim. I’ve also taken up tai chi. Since lawyering and writing require a lot of sitting, it really helps to move around. I’ve also found some good community writing programs–the Cincinnati Writers Project, Grailville, library series. . .
You just had your chapbook, Down Deep, accepted for publication by Finishing Line Press. Can you tell us a bit about those poems? How did they come together as a collection?
Most of the poems were part of my capstone project with Kelly Moffett, and one came from the 2012 First West Retreat. To arrange them, I did what I once heard Billy Collins suggest–pull out the strongest poems and lead with those.
Three topic areas predominate in the collection–gifts and struggles in family, in the natural world, and in my faith tradition. To keep the collection dynamic, I mixed up these topic areas. I also mixed up poems from different time periods and those with different voices/tones. Somehow there’s an inherent, nonlinear kind of logic to it. Almost every poem has water in it. The collection starts with a childhood scene and ends at a grave.
What is your writing process like?
Something strikes me that I need to respond to–it might be a film, a letter, a life event or a leaf. I sometimes make a note of it on my phone. Then I ruminate for awhile, or put it aside and then revisit it. For the actual writing, I like to have long stretches of time–the Friday night before our CWP poetry group meets on Saturday, or a Sunday morning. Then I revise and revise over at least a couple of weeks. I like to get feedback from a critique group before writing the final draft or submitting it anywhere.
Who are you reading right now?
Do you have any advice to the student-writers in our program?
Take every chance to read your work to an audience–at readings, conferences, the radio, open mics. NKU gave me a lot of those opportunities. It helps to hear how your work sounds out loud–what flows and what trips you up. Readings also let you feel audience response in a way that doesn’t happen alone at your computer. Giving readings is also a good counter to the critical voice that says “you can’t really write” or “you’re just wasting your time.”
For many of the same reasons, it’s great to attend writing conferences and retreats.